DIRECTIONS FOR USE:
(Enclosed measure approximates 2 oz based on density of product.)
Adult Horses (900-1,100 lbs): Provide 2-4 oz daily.
MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) Assists body to produce its own internal antioxidants which helps support normal inflammatory response by providing protection against oxidative stress. It is a great source of dietary sulfur, which plays an important role in maintaining the health of collagen, cartilage, hooves, hair and joint fluid.
Glucosamine is the building block of chondroitin sulfate, a specific type of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Current research suggests glucosamine has two beneficial actions in joints. Not only does it increase the production of new GAGs and therefore new cartilage, glucosamine has also been shown to inhibit the free radicals and enzymes that break down cartilage. This small but complex molecule has an important role in both the production and protection of joints.
Linolenic Acid (Omega-3) are essential fatty acids and must be obtained from the diet in order for
the body to function well. Omega-3s help support a normal inflammatory response throughout the body.
There must be a balance between the omega-3s and omega-6s for a proper but not excessive
Linolenic Acid (Omega-6) There must be a
balance between omega-3s and omega-6s for a proper but not excessive inflammatory response.
Magnesium (Mg) is a vital macromineral, and it is becoming increasingly recommended by veterinarians for various treatments in the horse. Because one of the clinical signs of magnesium deficiency is nervousness, it is added to many calming supplements. Magnesium helps protect against inflammation and free radical damage. Magnesium may play a role in insulin resistance and equine metabolic syndrome. Within the muscle calcium and magnesium work antagonistically, calcium causing muscle contraction and magnesium inducing relaxation. If there is not enough magnesium, muscles tend to spasm.
Yucca is an herb native to North and Central America used by ancient and modern civilizations to address musculoskeletal discomfort. Active ingredients have been isolated from Yucca that have shown to have antioxidant properties and promote a normal inflammatory response.
Chondroitin Sulfate inhibits the effects of various enzymes that breakdown cartilage. Building block of Hyaluronic acid (HA). Research has shown that chondroitin sulfate is bioavailable in the horse and that it appears to work synergistically with glucosamine to stimulate new cartilage production.
Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Nourishes cartilage and joint fluid, providing both lubrication and shock absorption. Hyaluronic acid is what makes joint fluid "sticky" because it is known to protect cells in the joint, HA is especially useful during periods of high-level joint stress.
Biotin is essential to the growth of strong, healthy hooves due to its role in collagen formation. A number of research studies show that longterm, daily supplementation of 10-30 mg of biotin daily improves the growth rate and hardness of hooves, especially in horses with less than optimum quality hoof horn (soft, brittle, chipped).
Ester-C® (calcium ascorbate) is a unique patented ascorbate complex bound with calcium carbonate. Ester- C® is naturally processed in purified water without the use of alcohol or acetone solvents. This makes Ester-C® a more readily available, readily absorbed form of vitamin C. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps protect the tissues of the body and also important in the production of connective tissues like tendons and ligaments. Ester-C® has up to 4X more metabolic activity than standard vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Calcium (Ca) is a micromineral found in highest amounts in bone and teeth. However, it also has important roles in muscle contraction, cell membranes, blood clotting, enzymes regulation, and hormone release. Absorption of calcium from the small intestine is controlled by vitamin D but can be reduced if there is too much phosphorus in the diet. Ideally, horses should receive slightly more calcium than phosphorus – a ratio between 1:1 and 2:1 is probably best. Pregnant and lactating mares, growing horses, and exercising horses may need more dietary calcium than an adult horse at rest. Phosphorus (P) in bones not only provides structural support for the skeleton, but it also acts as a reserve of P for other bodily functions.
Phosphorus is important in cell membranes and in reactions requiring cellular energy. Phosphorus also helps form the backbone of DNA and contributes to the pH and electrolyte balance in body fluids. The minerals calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) play a major role in proper growth and development of the skeletal system in horses. Calcium and phosphorus must be provided by a horse’s diet in the correct levels and ratio (somewhere in the 1:1 to 2:1 range). If more phosphorous than calcium is consumed by a horse then calcium absorption can be impaired and skeletal malformations, poor growth, and muscle disorders can occur.
Potassium (K) is a macromineral commonly referred to as an electrolyte because it helps maintain the body's acid/base balance and hydration status. One of potassium’s major roles is to keep the sensitivity of nerves and muscles at normal levels, not under or over reactive to impulses telling them to contract. This includes both skeletal and heart muscles. It is one of the most important minerals throughout the body. Fortunately, most horses receive all the potassium they need from their forage. The amount of potassium in the diet of HYPP horses must be closely monitored. Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning it must be provided in the diet since the body cannot create enough of its own. This means if it is not present in adequate amounts it limits the body's ability to make protein.
Methionine can be converted by the body into another sulfur-containing amino acid, cysteine. Because the concentration of both these amino acids is highest in hoof and hair, methionine especially is often included in hoof supplements.
Lysine is an amino acid and the only one for which a requirement in the horse has been established by the NRC. It is an essential amino acid, meaning it must be provided in the diet since the body cannot create enough of its own.Lysine is also a limiting amino acid. This means if it is not present in adequate amounts it limits the body's ability to make protein. Lysine is important in the formation of collagen (the protein that forms the matrix of bone, cartilage and connective tissue). Lysine supplements enhance the intestinal absorption of calcium and reduce the excretion of calcium in the urine. Lysine deficiency may result in immunodeficiency. Lysine can help inhibit the multiplication of virus and may prevent or decrease the severity of any viral flare-up.
Sulfur (S) is a macromineral and an essential constituent of several amino acids (methionine, cystine, and cysteine) as well as the B vitamins biotin and thiamin, and a number of other important molecules such as insulin, taurine, and chondroitin sulfate Therefore, sulfur serves major structure and function roles in the body. It is a component of proteins such as enzymes and of connective tissue such as hooves, bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
Choline is recommended for supporting a healthy nervous system. Choline is a component of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine carries messages between neurons, which enables the brain to communicate with itself and the rest of the body. Has indications for concentration, motor behavior, memory and muscle performance and prevents fat build-up in the liver.
Zinc (Zn) is a micromineral involved in over 100 enzyme systems ranging from support of connective tissue formation and antioxidants
to carbohydrate metabolism and immune system function. It is most recognized for its role in healthy skin and hooves. Supplementation should be considered because amounts in normal feedstuffs may not meet requirements.
Manganese (Mn) is a micromineral essential for bone formation, growth and reproduction. It is also essential in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Supplementation should be considered because not all diets provide the same levels of Manganese. It is among the least toxic of the trace minerals, and it plays an important role in young growing horses as well as active performance horses.
Copper (Cu) is a micromineral required for production of normal connective tissues including tendons, ligaments, cartilage and bone. As a component of many enzyme systems, it is also involved in making iron available to the body for blood, in producing skin and coat pigments, in proper nerve signaling and in repairing antioxidants. Low copper levels in mares and foals have been implicated in developmental orthopedic disease (DOD) including osteochondrosis (OCD).
The Vitamin B family is made up of several compounds that serve many important roles in the body: protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism; energy production; proper nerve cell transmission; and cell reproduction and division (especially rapidly dividing ones such as red blood cells). B vitamins include thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), and cyanocobalamin (B12). For most of the B vitamins, microorganisms in the large intestine make all the horse needs. Only thiamine and riboflavin have NRC dietary requirements. However, research suggests B vitamin supplementation may be beneficial to stabled horses with little access to fresh pasture, heavily exercising horses, pregnant and lactating mares, horses with GI conditions that may interfere with normal gut flora, and any periods of stress (injury, illness, shipping, old age, etc.).
Iodine (I) - Unlike many of the other minerals, iodine has only one main function in your horse's body, it is an important part of two major hormones that regulate basal metabolism. Unfortunately, too much iodine and too little iodine both result in the same clinical sign — and enlarged thyroid gland or "goiter." The margin between safe and toxic dietary levels is small so it is best to determine if your horse is already receiving enough iodine from the diet before supplementing.
Selenium is a trace mineral that along with vitamin E function in a partnership that helps to protect body tissues from free radical damage that occurs during oxidation (the conversion of feedstuffs into energy). In particular, they act as a defense mechanism against damage to cell membranes and enzymes. While some parts of the country have high levels of selenium in their soil and therefore the plants that grow there, selenium deficiency has been reported in 46 states. Therefore, most horses will need supplementation to meet the NRC requirement of 1 mg/day for maintenance. For optimum immune function and exercise recovery, 2 to 3 mg/day is recommended, which is still well below 50 mg/day which may be the upper safe limit. Selenium yeast, the organic form of the mineral, is better absorbed than inorganic selenium selenate or selenite.
Cobalt (Co) is a micromineral used by intestinal microorganisms to produce vitamin B12, which works with iron and copper to form healthy red blood cells.
Vitamin A is well-known for its role in maintaining healthy vision, especially night vision. However, it is also needed for reproduction, immunity, and normal skeletal development in young growing horses and exercising horses that are remodeling bone. Horses must satisfy their vitamin A requirement from their diet, but only horses on fresh green pasture or high-quality alfalfa are likely to meet that requirement. Horses on grass hay, horses with no access to pasture, or horses that are exercising or breeding probably need supplementation.
Vitamin D (Calciferol) plays an indirect role in bone growth and maintenance by managing the levels of calcium (Ca) in the body. It controls the absorption of Ca from the intestine, the movement of Ca into and out of bone, and the amount of Ca excreted by the kidneys. While a minimum requirement has been set by the NRC, it is assumed that horses make all the Vitamin D they need simply by exposure to sunlight, which converts precursors of vitamin D in the skin to the active form of the vitamin. However, horses kept indoors for prolonged periods, horses fed poor quality hay, very young foals or exercising horses that are remodeling bone may need supplementation. Deficiency causes reduced appetite, slowed growth, physitis in growing horses, bone demineralization (leading to stress fractures and bone deformities), and poor muscle contraction.
Vitamin E (Tocopherol) is considered the most important antioxidant and works closely with selenium to protect the body from the oxidative stress of exercise, illness and certain medical conditions. Found in high amounts in fresh pasture, levels begin to decay the moment pasture is cut for hay. That is why any horse that does not have access to grass - regardless of its activity level or health - should receive vitamin E supplementation. Horses are not very efficient in storing vitamin E and deficiency may be accelerated if the diet is deficient in selenium.
Probiotics are live microorganisms fed to promote healthy digestive and immune function. When these "good" bugs break down food ingredients that the body normally can't. They produce energy and vitamins for the body, food for cells in the cecum and colon, and byproducts that keep the "bad" bugs from growing. Research suggests probiotics are useful in repopulating the intestine with "good" bugs after antibiotic use and may benefit certain horses with diarrhea. A common term used for probiotics is direct-fed microbials (DFM)